FURTHER READINGS

WE SUGGEST THE FOLLOWING LIST OF BOOKS AND REFERENCE MATERIALS TO FURTHER ASSIST YOU IN YOUR RESEARCH:

This section of the FISA BC website is under active development on an ongoing basis. Suggestions for inclusion of materials dealing with independent school issues are welcome. Citation format is in APA style.

  • Anderson, J.C. (1996). Developments in Human Rights. In W.F. Foster and W.J. Smith (Eds.), Education and Law: Reaffirming the Partnership (pp.26-29). Proceedings of the sixth Annual Conference of the Canadian Association for the Practical Study of Law in Education, held Victoria, BC, 1996.
    Section 2 of the paper deals with an admission case in which it was held that human rights legislation applied to an independent school.
  • Association of Waldorf Schools of North America (AWSNA). (2007). Independent Schools and School Choice Legislation in the United States. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Author.
    Articulates the perspective of Waldorf Schools on the school choice and government accountability measures for independent schools. The orientation is American, but there are several Waldorf schools in British Columbia. 49 pages.
  • Barman, J. (1986). Transfer, Imposition or Consensus? The Emergence of Educational Structure in Nineteenth Century British Columbia. In Sheehan, N.M., & Wilson J.D., & Jones D.C. (Eds.), Schools in the West: Essays in Canadian Educational History (pp.241-264). Calgary, Alberta: Detselig Enterprises Limited.
    A history of the formation of the British Columbia school system, with an emphasis on the political and public debates.
  • Bergen, J.J. (1980). Private Schools in Alberta: A report to the Task Force on Private Schools for the Alberta School Trustees’ Association. Edmonton, Alberta: Alberta School Trustees; Association.
    An examination of independent school issues based on surveys, but introduced by provisions for independent schools in other countries and provinces. 80 pages.
  • Blair, A.G. (1986). The Policy and Practice of Religious Education in Publicly-Funded Elementary and Secondary Schools in Canada and Elsewhere. Toronto, Ontario: Queen’s Printer (Ministry of Education).
    A factual description of legislation and practice with respect to religion in all Canadian provinces and thirteen countries. Historically useful and current up to 1986. 48 pages.
  • Bosetti, L., Foulkes, E., O’Reilly, R., & Sande, D. (2000). Canadian Charter Schools at the Crossroads: Final Report. Kelowna, BC : Society for the Advancement of Excellence in Education.
    A research based discussion of the results of establishing charter schools in Alberta. 208 pages.
  • Brown, D.J. (1999). The Impact of Parental Choice on Three Canadian Public Schools. Kelowna, B.C : Society for the Advancement of Excellence in Education.
    A research based discussion of the effects of expanding choice of schools in the Langley Public School District. 129 pages.
  • Brown, D.M. (1999). Independent Schools: Fundamental Principles and Current Challenges. In W.F. Foster and W.J. Smith (Eds.), Focusing on the Future: Seeking Legal and Policy Solutions in Education. Proceedings of the tenth Annual Conference of the Canadian Association for the Practical Study of Law in Education, held Toronto, Ontario 1999.
    Legal and philosophical concepts underlying independent education.
  • Cardus Education Survey. (2012). A Rising Tide Lifts All Boats:  Measuring Non-Government School Effects in Service of the Canadian Public Good. Hamilton: Cardus. www.cardus.ca/research/education/
  • Clemens, Jason.  “Wait Lists for Independent Schools in British Columbia’s Lower Mainland.”  Studies in Education Policy. Fraser Institute.   October 2012. http://www.fraserinstitute.org/uploadedFiles/fraser-ca/Content/research-news/research/publications/wait-lists-for-independent-schools-in-BCs-lower-mainland.pdf
  • Coleman, J.S. & Hoffer, T. (1987). Public and Private High Schools: The impact of Communities. New York: Basic Books, Inc.
    Examines the impact of social issues, common values, and social capital on schooling in the public and independent sector. 254 pages.
  • Coulson, A.J. (2000). Market Education and the Public Good. Paper presented at Fraser Institute Conference under the theme School: Choice: Dispelling the Myths and Examining the Evidence, April 1, 2000, Mississauga, Ontario. Vancouver, BC: The Fraser Institute.
    Examines the organization of education historically and across cultures to demonstrate the desirability of choice in education. 22 pages.
  • Cunningham, V. (2002). Justice Achieved: The Political Struggle of Independent Schools in British Columbia. Vancouver, BC: The Federation of Independent School Associations in BC.
    A history of the work of the FISA in obtaining legal recognition and partial funding for independent schools in British Columbia. 311 pages.
  • Doctor, E. (2003). How Independent are Independent Schools? In 3 R.C. Flynn (Ed.), Law in Education: Help or Hindrance? (pp. 295-334). Proceedings of the fourteenth Annual Conference of the Canadian Association for the Practical Study of Law in Education, held in Jasper, Alberta, 2003.
    Legal concepts of procedural fairness and natural justice in relation to independent schools.
  • Downey, L.W. (1986). The Aid-To-Independent Schools Movement in British Columbia. In Sheehan, N.M., & Wilson J.D., & Jones D.C. (Eds.), Schools in the West: Essays in Canadian Educational History (pp.305-323). Calgary, Alberta: Detselig Enterprises Limited.
    An examination of the passage of Bill 33 in 1977 providing partial grants to independent schools, with an emphasis on political issues.
  • Duthler, G. (1999). Independent Schools: Developments in Policy and Law in Western Canada. In W.F. Foster and W.J. Smith (Eds.), Focusing on the Future: Seeking Legal and Policy Solutions in Education. Proceedings of the tenth Annual Conference of the Canadian Association for the Practical Study of Law in Education, held Toronto, Ontario 1999.
    Legislative and governance issues dealing with independent schools in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba.
  • Fagan,B. (2004). Trial: The Loss of Constitutional Rights in Education in Newfoundland and Labrador: The Roman Catholic Story. St. John’s, NL: ADDA Press.
    Discusses the loss of the denominational school system of Newfoundland and Labrador from a Roman Catholic perspective. 248 pages. See also Rowe, F.W. (1964).
  • Friesen, J.W. (1983). Schools With a Purpose. Calgary, Alberta: Detselig Enterprises Limited.
    A discussion of five schools as samples of assimilation, cultural wedge, cultural isolation, synthesizing, and cultural preservation. 142 pages.
  • Gaskell, J. (1995). Dilemmas of Educational Choice. Paper presented at the national conference of the Canadian Teachers’ Federation under the theme “Public Education: Meeting the Challenges,” May 1995. Ottawa, Ontario: Canadian Teachers’ Federation.
    Discusses the context of choice in education in Canada in comparison to American discussions. The issue of equity is reviewed. 21 pages.
  • Gibson, D. (2009). Towers, Bridges and Basements: The Constitutional and Legal Architecture of Independent School. InLaw in Education: Tower or Bridge? Proceedings of the twentieth Annual Conference of the Canadian Association for the Practical Study of Law in Education, held Toronto, Ontario, April 26-28, 2009.
    The author argues for a constitutional middle ground that reconciles legitimate state concerns with parents’ historic responsibility for their children’s schooling. 37 pages.
  • Glegg, A. (2002). Reflections of Diversity: British Columbia’s Independent Schools and Indicators of Changing Parental Priorities. International Journal of Educational Reform, 11(4), 297-308.
    A description of growth patterns and of reasons for parental choice in relation to independent schools in British Columbia.
  • Glenn, C.L. JR. (1987). The Myth of the Common School. Amherst, MA: The University of Massachusetts Press.
    An examination of the right of the state in contrast with the right of parents to choose the educational values taught to children, with developments around this issue in the USA, France, and the Netherlands. 369 pages.
  • Glenn, C.L. JR. (2000). The Ambiguous Embrace: Government and Faith-Based Schools and Social Agencies. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
    A balanced presentation grounded in case studies of the positive and negative effects of government funding on faith-based organizations. 315 pages.
  • Greene, J.P. (2001). A Survey of Results from Voucher Experiments: Where We Are and What We Know. In C.R. Hepburn (Ed.), Can the Market Save Our Schools? (pp.121-149). Vancouver, BC: The Fraser Institute.
    A discussion of funding of educational choice, vouchers, and perespectives from the United States and New Zealand. 193 pages.
  • Guldemond, A. (2002). Privately Happy and Publicly Useful: An Accountability Framework for Ontario’s Independent Schools. In R.C. Flynn (Ed.), In Support of Lifelong Learning (pp. 42-80). Proceedings of the thirteenth Annual Conference of the Canadian Association for the Practical Study of Law in Education, held in St. Andrews-by-the-Sea, New Brunswick, 2002.
    Legislative and policy framework for accountability of independent education in relation to education tax credits.
  • Hiemstra, J.L.& Brink, R.A. (2006). The Advent of a Public Pluriformity Model: Faith-based School Choice in Alberta.Canadian Journal of Education, 29(4), 1157-1190.
    The article discusses Alberta’s current pluriformity of school authorities and structures, taking note particularly of the accommodations religious groups have made with the state and the state with religious groups. The discussion is set in the context of the arrangements that were made in nineteenth century Canada relating faith to schooling.
  • Hiemstra, J.L. (2005). Calvinist Pluriformity Challenges Liberal Assimilation: A Novel Case for Publicly Funding Alberta’s Private Schools, 1953-1967. Journal of Canadian Studies, 39 (3), 146-173.
    The article discusses the religious/philosophical views of post World War II Calvinist immigrants to Alberta in engagement with the existing Alberta mind set, as these informed the debates for public funding of private schools in Alberta.
  • Keel, R.G. & Nickle, M. (1993). Alternative Education: Is there a Right to It? The Canadian and US Experience. In W.F. Foster (Ed.), Education & Law: Education in the Era of Individual Rights (pp. 232-250). Proceedings of the fourth Annual Conference of the Canadian Association for the Practical Study of Law in Education, held Halifax, Nova Scotia, 1993.
    Legal and legislative basis for home-schooling and independent schooling.
  • Kroeker, F.M. (2003). Making a Case for State Supported Religious Schooling. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta.
    Examines the debate between proponents and opponents of funding for religious schools. The study is philosophical in nature and deals extensively with the Waldman v. Ontario case, which Waldman eventually took to the United Nations. 169 pages.
  • Kroeker, F.M., Norris, S.P. (2007). An Unwarranted Fear of Religious Schooling. Canadian Journal of Education, 30 (1), 269-290.
    The authors articulate the view that religious schooling can achieve the liberal civic education goals of tolerance, critical reasoning, and personal autonomy.
  • Ludwig, J.B. (1970). Control and Financing of Private Education in Alberta: The Role of Parents, the Church and the State. Unpublished Master of Education thesis, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta.
    Examines the historical and legal background of choice in education and presents arguments for and against choice, as well as comments on the roles of parents, religion, and the state. 219 pages.
  • Mackay, A.W. (1986). The Equality Provisions of the Charter and Education: A Structural Analysis. Canadian Journal of Education, 11 (3), 293-312.
    A discussion of Section 15 of the Charter as it may apply to education with a brief but significant section on conditions under which application of the charter could be extended to independent schools.
  • Mackay, J.K., et al. (1969). Religious Information and Moral Development: The Report of the Committee on Religious Education in the Public Schools of the Province of Ontario. Toronto, Ontario: Queen’s Printer (Ministry of Education).
    An examination of religious education in public schools with recommendnations for inclusion of religious information education, not indoctrination, in public schools. 119 pages.
  • Magsino, R.F. (1986). Human Rights, Fair Treatment and Funding of Private Schools in Canada. Canadian Journal of Education, 11 (3), 245-263.
    A discussion of the inequality of funding between independent and public schools in the context of human rights.
  • Maguire, P. (2006). Choice in Urban School Districts: The Edmonton Experience. Kelowna, BC: Society for the Advancement of Excellence in Education.
    This case study examines the factors and policies of school choice in the context of public schooling in Edmonton, Alberta. The Edmonton experience has garnered widespread interest among educational leaders and researchers. 107 pages.
  • Manley-Casimir, M.E. (Ed.). (1982). Family Choice in Schooling. Toronto: Lexington Books, D.C. Heath and Company.
    Fourteen papers covering a variety of topics relevant to independent schools delivered in May 1980 at Simon Fraser University, B.C. at the international symposium entitled Family Choice, Schooling, and the Public Interest. Chapter 1 is particularly helpful for Canadian historical and constitutional perspectives. 210 pages.
  • Marshall, R.P. & Heffernan, P. (2009). A Constitutional Right to Catholic Education in Ontario: Lessons from Quebec and Newfoundland Labrador. In Law in Education: Tower or Bridge? C.D. Proceedings of the twentieth Annual Conference of the Canadian Association for the Practical Study of Law in Education, held Toronto, Ontario, April 26-28, 2009.
    Examines the constitutional foundations of the organization of education in Ontario in the context of constitutional amendments made for education in Quebec and Newfoundland. 15 pages.
  • Miller, R.H. (1986). Should There be Religious Alternative Schools Within the Public School System ? Canadian Journal of Education, 11 (3), 278-292. A Discussion of issues raised by religion in public schools.
  • Newfoundland and Labrador. (1969). Legislation Passed 1968 and 1969 Relating to the Reorganization of Education with a Statement by The Honourable Dr. F.W. Rowe, Minister of Education. St. John’s, NL: Queen’s Printers (Ministry of Education).
    The statement is the introductory statement of the Minister of Education, the Hon. F.W. Rowe, to second reading of the Schools Act (short title) of 1969, implementing some reforms to the Newfoundland and Labrador education system. 98 pages.
  • Newfoundland and Labrador. (1992). Our Children, Our Future: The Royal Commission of Inquiry into the Delivery of Programs and Services in Primary, Elementary, Secondary Education: Summary Report. St. John’s, NL: Queen’s Printer.
    The full report was often referred to as the Williams’ Commission Report. This report is the context within which the process of the loss of denominational rights in education in Newfoundland and Labrador occurred. 44 pages.
  • Plant, P.G. (1994). The Legal Position of the Independent School Student in British Columbia. In W.F. Foster (Ed.), Rights, Responsibilities & Reasonableness: Striking the Balance in Education (pp. 476-493). Proceedings of the fifth Annual Conference of the Canadian Association for the Practical Study of Law in Education, held Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, 1994.
    Discusses the contractual nature of the relationship between independent schools and their students.
  • Randall, E.V. (1994). Private Schools and Public Power: A Case for Pluralism. New York, New York: Teachers College Press, Columbia University.
    An examination of government regulation of independent schools as it relates to public policy and pluralism with frequent reference to case law. American, but extremely useful for a clear expression of underlying concepts, philosophy, and ideals surrounding contentious issues. 219 pages.
  • Robson, W. (2000). Publicly Funded Education in Ontario: Breaking the Deadlock. Paper presented at a Fraser Institute Conference under the theme “School Choice: Dispelling the Myths and Examining the Evidence,” April, 2000, Mississauga, Ontario. Vancouver, BC: The Fraser Institute.
    Examines issues in public education and proposes funding for independent schools in Ontario. 34 pages.
  • Rowe, F.W. (1964). The Development of Education in Newfoundland. Toronto, Ontario: The Ryerson Press.
    A history of the development of education in Newfoundland, of interest since it was the only fully denominational system of schooling in North America. 225 pages. See also Fagan, B. (2004).
  • Russell, N.T. (1993). Strength of Choice. Toronto: Canadian Association of Independent Schools.
    A history of the formation of the Canadian Association of Independent Schools. 107 pages.
  • Saskatchewan Education. (1990). Minister’s Advisory Board on Independent Schools, Final Report to the Ministry of Education, Volume I and Volume II. Regina, Saskatchewan: Queen’s Printer (Saskatchewan Education).
    Proposals for the continuation, regulation, and funding of independent schools in Saskatchewan. 164 and 184 pages.
  • Shapiro, B.J. (1985). The Report of the Commission on Private Schools in Ontario. Toronto, Ontario: Queen’s Printer (Ministry of Education).
    Examines independent education from a variety of perspectives: other provinces and countries, opinion of Ontario citizens, Commission recommendations, with 14 appendices. 267 pages.
  • Shapiro, B.J. (1986). The Public Funding of Private Schools in Ontario: The Setting, Some Arguments, and Some Matters of Belief. Canadian Journal of Education, 11 (3), 264-277.
    A discussion of various rationales advanced in favour of, as well as opposed to, funding for independent schools.
  • Stamp, R.M. (1985). The Historical Background to Separate Schools in Ontario. Toronto, Ontario: Queen’s Printer (Ministry of Education).
    Development of legislative provisions for Ontario separate schools, beginning in 1841. 35 pages.
  • Stamp, R.M. (1986). Religious Exercises in Elementary and Secondary Schools. Toronto, Ontario: Queen’s Printer (Ministry of Education).
    Historical background and interprovincial comparisons of religious exercises in schools. 39 pages.
  • Thiessen, E.J. (2001). In Defence of Religious Schools and Colleges. Montreal & Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press.
    An examination of objections to religious day schooling with reasoned answers to those objections: social harmony, rights and freedoms, economic concerns, narrowness, theological influence, liberalism and pluralism. 368 pages.
  • Van Brummelen, H. (1986). Shifting Perspectives: Early British Columbia Textbooks from 1872-1925. In Sheehan, N.M., & Wilson J.D., & Jones D.C. (Eds.), Schools in the West: Essays in Canadian Educational History (pp.17-38). Calgary, Alberta: Detselig Enterprises Limited.
    An examination of changes in currriculum and textbook content as changes occurred in the belief systems of people.
  • Vanderwoerd, J.R. (2003). Secular and Religious Tensions in Government-Funded Faith-Based Social Services Organizations. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio: Mandel School of Applied Social Sciences, Case Western Reserve University.
    Investigates how government funding influences the religious characteristics of faith-based social service organizations and how these organizations manage tensions arising from both secular and religious contexts. American in focus but general themes are applicable in the Canadian context. 318 pages.
  • Van Pelt, D.A., Allison, P.A., Allison, D.J. (2007). Ontario’s Private Schools: Who Chooses Them and Why? Studies in Education Policy May, 2007, A Fraser Institute Occasional Paper. Vancouver, BC: The Fraser Institute.
    An empirical study of the reasons parents choose independent schools. 34 pages.
  • Vitz, P.C. (1986). Censorship: Evidence of Bias in Our Children’s Textbooks. Ann Arbor, Michigan: Servant Books.
    A research based examination of what is and is not left out of textbooks with respect to religion and traditional values. American, but Canadian texts have similar issues of balanced approach. See page 20 in Williams (1979) for a comment on texts in Canada. 142 pages.
  • Walker, K.D. & Gerrard C.D. (1984). Balancing Interest and Sustaining the Public Trust: The Case of Independent Schools and Home-Based Education in Saskatchewan. In W.F. Foster (Ed.), Proceedings of the fifth Annual Conference of the Canadian Association for the Practical Study of Law in Education, held Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, 1994.
    Legal and legislative structure for home-schooling and independent schools in Saskatchewan.
  • Williams T.R. (1979). Leadership Issues for Canadian Education. Toronto: The Canadian Education Association.
    Issues addressed include economics and demography, ideological and value concerns, control of education and administrative style. 40 pages.
  • Woods Gordon Management Consultants. (1984). A study of Private Schools in Alberta. Edmonton, Alberta: Alberta Education.
    Examines the many factors of the appropriate relationship between government and nongovernment operated education. 70 pages.